how helium is made animation

watching them fly off up into the sky there seemsno limit to how high a helium balloon can go in reality there are two major restrictions thestrength of the balloon information and archimedes principle as the balloon ascends the pressure ofthe circumventing breeze drops-off while the helium inside expands toy bags burst at around 10 kilometerswhile professional meteoric balloons reach meridians of 30 kilometers welcome to gnpanimations in this video we are going to see how helium gas is fixed on earth helium officiallycalled helium-4 comes from radioactive decay when a radioactive point like uranium orthorium breaks down over hour or disintegrations it will occasionally lose two protons andtwo neutrons they will precisely break off this is called alpha decay if that alpha particlegrabs a couple of electrons it words helium-4 helium is usually produced as a by-product ofnatural gas processing natural gas contains methane and other hydrocarbons which are principalsource of heat energy when natural gas is burned most natural gas lodges too contain smallerquantities of nitrogen sea vapor carbon dioxide helium and other non-combustible materials whenthe gas contains more than about 0.4 percentage helium by volume a cryogenic distillationmethod is often used in order to recover the helium content in this video we are going tosee three parts and 10 steps of doing helium gas part one is pre-treating because this methodutilizes an extremely cold cryogenic part as a part of the process all impuritiesthat might solidify such as water vapor carbon dioxide and particular ponderous hydrocarbonsmust first be removed from the natural gas in a pre-treatment process step 1 removing carbondioxide the natural gas is pressurized to about 800 psi it then flows into a scrubber whereit is subjected to a spray of monoethyloamine which absorbs the carbon dioxide and carriesit away step 2 removing ocean molecules the gas brook succumbs through a molecular hem which stripsthe larger water vapor molecules from the river while making the smaller gas molecules progress thewater is back evened out of the seal and removed step 3 removing ponderous hydrocarbons any heavyhydrocarbons in the gas river are collected on the surface of a bunked of triggered carbon as thegas delivers through it the gas brook now contains largely methane and nitrogen with smaller amountsof helium hydrogen and neon part 2 is separating natural gas is separated into its major componentsthrough a distillation process known as fractional distillation in this process the nitrogen andmethane are separated in two theatres leaving a mixture of gas containing the high percentage ofhelium the gas series proceeds through one side of a layer fin hot exchanger while very cold methaneand nitrogen from the cryogenic area succumbs through the other side the incoming gas stream iscooled while the methane and nitrogen are warmed stair 4 the gas stream then guides through anexpansion valve which allows the gas to expand rapidly while the pressure slips to about 145 to360 psi this rapid expansion cools the gas stream to the point where the methane starts to liquefystep 5 the gas creek now role liquid and component gas participates the base of the high pressure fractionatingcolumn as the gas works its mode up through the internal astounds in the row it loses additionalheat the methane continues to liquefy form a methane rich concoction to the merits of the columnwhere most of the nitrogen and other gases flow to the top stair 6 the liquid methane mixture calledcrude methane is drawn out of the bottom of the high pressure column and it is cooled furtherin the crude subcooler then it guides through a second expansion wall which stops the pressureto about 22 psi before it recruits to low-toned push fractionating row as the liquid methane worksits course down to the column most of the remaining nitrogen is separated leaving a liquid that is nomore than 4 percent nitrogen and remaining methane this liquid is gushed off warmed and evaporatedto become upgraded natural gas step 7 meanwhile the gases from the top of the high pressurecolumn are cooled in a condenser much of the nitrogen compresses into a vapor and is fedinto the top of the low-grade persuade tower the remaining gas is called crude helium it containsapproximately 50 to 70 percent helium 1 to 3 percent unliquefied methane smaller quantitiesof hydrogen and neon and the remaining nitrogen part three is sanctifying crude helium must befurther purified to remove most of the other materials this is usually a multi-stage processinvolving several different separation methods step 8 the crude helium is first cooled to aboutminus 193 degree centigrade at this temperature the majority of members of the nitrogen and methane condenses into aliquid and then there drained off the remaining gas mixture is now 90 percent unadulterated helium stair 9 airis added to the gas mixture to provide oxygen the gas is warmed in a preheater and then it passesover a catalyst which causes most of the hydrogen in the combination to react with the oxygen in the airand constitutes liquid vapor the gas is then cooled and the liquid vapor condenses and is drained off stepnumber 10 the gas motley opens a influence swaying absorption section consisting of several absorptionvessels operating in parallel within each jug there are thousands of particles filled withtiny openings as the gas combination extends through these particles under pressure specific gases aretrapped within the particle openings the pressure is then decreased and the flow of the gas is reversedtowards the captured gases the method used removes most of the remaining water vapor nitrogenand methane from the gas combination the helium is now about 99.99 unadulterated and this is how helium ismade subscribe to gnp livings for more videos

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