[ Disclaimer] Hello everyone! Today, I’ll tell you about the most widespread royal gas in the recognizable cosmo, which are capable of have unique superfluidity dimensions at extremely low temperatures. Guys, delight gratify Helium. In the periodic table, this element is located in the upper right corner. It is easier to find it by it’s atomic number, 2. I judge beings acquaint themselves with this inert gas from childhood.Because of its lightness in relation to air, Helium is perfect for inflating gala balloons children cherish so much. Because of the facts of the case that the molar mass of Helium is almost 7 occasions smaller than that of breeze, it easily moves up above. Anyways, Helium isn’t as abundant on earth and our atmosphere is only 0.0005% Helium. Most of Helium that can be used for air balloon comes from natural gas, Helium concentration of which can reach up to 7% in it. It’s so, because, as a result of radioactive decay of Uranium and Thorium in Earth’s crust, Helium can accrue in Earth’s interior, along with natural gas and not vanish in the atmosphere.If we broadening the scope, nonetheless, in terms of abundance, Helium will be second only to Hydrogen, among other factors in all of the discernible world. Exactly imagine, all atoms that aren’t Hydrogen and Helium are only 2% of the overall mass of thing. It’s a great opportunity to feel how small we are in the universe. Most of Helium in the universe is in the stars and in the atmosphere of gas heavyweights, which, like the universe, contained 25% Helium from their entire mass. Harmonizing to present-day data, most Helium that is in the universe formed during the Big Bang about 40 billion years ago. Let us come down to Earth and consider these gas properties with the help of more tangible ventures. I have a small ampule fill with helium, which is stored at a very low pressure that is roughly one hundredth of atmospheric pressure.Helium doesn’t have a colouring and it also doesn’t have a smell. You may already know this if you’ve ever played with Helium and try to inhale this gas. However such experiments are really dangerous because our cadres don’t breathe helium, they need oxygen instead.( People breathing Helium) even induced Helium cylinder retailers add up to 20% of Oxygen to Helium in order to impel Helium balloons at gatherings safer. If high frequency discharge of high-pitched voltage is transferred through an ampule of Helium, it is the beginning brightening sallow orange.( I will be glowing orange more. And dead .) Its brightness depends on the voltage and the ampule’s diameter. I use the plasma lamp as a voltage generator. It made it possible for me to hold the ampule right in my hands, because my mas posed as a capacitor, like everybody else’s body, for that matter.In differentiate to Neon or Xenon, Helium can radiate from a distance from the generator cable. Unfortunately, from the chemical point of view, Helium doesn’t have very interesting belongings. It nearly doesn’t react with any substances. Also, in the form of plasma, similar to the one you can see in the ampule, Helium can words extremely volatile combinations with Hydrogen, Deuterium, and some metals at a high pressure of 100,000 flavours. They even word special substances, clathrate complexes( lattices that are in/ trap molecules ), of Helium with Nitrogen, which can be grown as quartzs in a diamond anvil cadre. There is no need to display though, because Helium possess the most interesting and unique physical owneds among all elements.The thing is, when the temperature of Helium is reduced to 4.2 K, Helium becomes the lightest liquor, concentration of which is almost 10 eras smaller than that of sea. It is so cold that some metals even become superconductors, for instance, like mercury or niobium. To maintain such a low temperature, liquid Helium is stored in cryogenic storage dewars, which are also externally cooled off with Nitrogen. The same engineering of cooling Helium is used in modern devices for creating nuclear magnetic resonance( NMR ). Superconductors made from Niobium are cooled off with liquid Helium, which, in turn, is cooled off with the cheaper Nitrogen, the cost of Helium being too expensive. Thus, liquid Helium is used in medicine and scientific studies.The most interesting is still ahead of us. Til now, we have been talking about the firstly kind of liquid Helium. If Helium is further cooled off by reducing pressure in the storage dewars, the liquid will eventually reach the so-called Lambda point,( Lamb: baaaaaaaaaaa) or, in other words, will be reduced to the temperature of 2.17 K, and we’ve encountered the second form of liquid Helium! After that, evaporating of the liquid stops, and it starts to exhibit completely different properties.At such temperatures thermal conductivity of liquid Helium increases by millions of goes, and becomes higher than that of copper and silver. That is why the liquid doesn’t boil, because the heat is spread immediately and evenly through the entire material. Along with that, upon achieve the Lambda point, Helium becomes a superfluid. i.e. It loses all viscosity, which is the resistance of one part of the fluid against the movement of the other part of it. There is a great experiment that proves that. If you pour some liquid Helium into small-time hanging bowl, the liquid will start creeping out the wall of the bowl.( Whaaaaaa ??????) Besides, it readily guides through a coating of ceramic with one micrometer wide holes. The lower the temperature is, the easier it is for a superfluid to pass through obstacles.* supercooled** slides in to DMs*() It’s also quite surprising that superfluid Helium is still solid, as can be seen from the second experiment: When the liquid is rotated, the liquid layer actually elapses rotation to the upper blades.What this is, after all, is when quantum mechanisms, whose behavior sometimes drastically differ from that of classical car-mechanics rules, come into play. Viscosity is both present and absent.( Like my father .) That is how it can be characterized. By the action, superfluidity of liquid Helium was first discovered by Soviet scientist Pyotr Kapitsa in 1958. And in 1962, Lev Landau worked out the conjecture of this consequence. Do you think that’s it? Not at all! Now let’s talk about stars and planetary travelling .( Aw yeah !) Til now, we have been talking about isotope, Helium-4, which has two protons and two neutrons. Nonetheless, there is yet another isotope, Helium-3, which has two protons and one neutron. The thing is, this isotope is perfect for imparting fusion reactions with Deuterium and Tritium( isotopes of Hydrogen ). This process can help humanity replacement fossil fuel, but the problem is that this isotope is very rare on Earth, because it immediately vanishes in the ambiance. Whereas, the isotope remains on the moon, which is not have an atmosphere.Hypothetically speaking, people could remove Helium-3 from lunar dust and use it as a source of energy now on Earth. As for now though, it seems to be a fantasy. To sum up, we can say that such a simple-seeming element as Helium has surprising belongings, and is irreplaceable in medicine for scan the human body.() If you would like to support a perpetual production of science videos like this one, satisfy support the channel on Patreon, tie-up in the video description. Please like this video and expressed support for my path to see my new and interesting videos!( Hello Kitty! Meow !) Translators: These subtitles are given by AlexMeow bleufeline and XingYT, if there are any inaccuracies, you’re welcome to correct it, thanks!( Hi five to you too, cutie pasty !)

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