Comprendre et VOIR la Radioactivité ! – [Science 2.0]

When you think about radioactivity, you often think about … this. So today we’re going to try and scientifically understand this phenomenon, see if it’s really as dangerous and creepy as you think, and do some experimentations that will show invisible particles. Let’s go. In degree to understand radioactivity, we must first remember that an atom is make use of a nucleus that contains positive protons, and neutrons.This nucleus is surrounded with negatively charged electrons, as numerous as protons. If the nucleus contains 1 proton then it’s hydrogen, 8 and it’s oxygen, 26 for iron, 80 for mercury, etc. The nucleus of a chemical element can contain a bit more or less neutrons, and those different versions are called isotopes. But some configurations are not stable and radioactivity is the natural process in which the nucleus of an atom shatters and spontaneously converts into another element, until it gets back to a stable configuration. And as this metamorphosi appears, the nucleus releases vitality and corpuscles, and that’s called radiation. Radioactivity naturally happens everywhere, whether it’s from Earth, the border air that contains Radon, space with cosmic ray, even if it’s just a little bit.Also you are radioactive, the human body contains Carbon 14 and Potassium 40 who the hell is radioactive, Potassium 40 is also found in food like bananas … Anyway, it’s absolutely everywhere. OMG we’re gonna die! This radioactivity is applicable in nuclear energy( fission) to produce heat that will boil water, and then spawn vapor that they are able to drive turbins that produce electricity; in medical region it’s used to prepare CT scans, discus cancer cells … and ..! In the mid-1 800 s though 1920 s they used to start what’s called uranium glass which contains uranium in the form of oxides, that’s what gives its yellow-bellied/ light-green fluorescent colour. And when you ignite it up with UV light-footed it starts brightening, it’s beautiful. Up until the 50 s they used to spawn clocks with needles covered in Radium, that’s what helped them glow in the dark. And there was a time when Radium was also far-famed for cosmetics. Everything is fine! Oh and don’t worry, the radioactive rock-and-rolls are here, we’ll get there in a minute. The radiations we spoke earlier exist in many forms, but there are 3 prime forms: Alpha, beta, and gamma rays. Alpha ray is a particle, made of 2 protons and 2 neutrons.It interacts a good deal with subject, it’s the most dangerous one, but it naturally stops after a few cases centimeters of breath, or instant where reference is pops a article stratum or the scalp. Beta ray is either the emission of an electron – then it’s beta minus – or a position – beta plus. These react a little less with subject but they can run through a longer distance. And they can be stopped with tinfoil, plastic, or glass. And lastly gamma rays, they’re actually an electromagnetic wave – just like brightnes – but with a bit more energy and a higher frequency, close to X-rays.Those can get through matter easily, but they interact method less. All these radiation forms have a thing in common, which is to be ionizing. Everywhere they become, they disrupt the electrical balance of matter and form ions, which conveys atoms or molecules that are blamed either positively or negatively. This can generate chemical reactions that are not supposed to happen and this is where it gets toxic, but with a high dose. On the opposite, radioactivity from visible light, cellphones, WiFi, antennas, radios or even microwave are non-ionizing and they do not damage tissues or DNA.By the nature, the exact moment a disintegration happens is random, but when you look at a bigger specified of atoms, you can see that the activity rapidly stops, following an exponential decay. There is what’s called the half-life, which is the duration after which half of the atoms of a test will have decomposed. So after 2 half-lives there’s only 1/4 left, 1/8 th, etc. To evaluate radioactivity, I have this Geiger counter, the Radiascan 701. It comes with a pro sensor, and can spy gamma, beta, and alpha lights. So as you can see there’s already a certain rate of radioactivity in the air, that’s the background radioactivity I is about earlier, come the Earth, aura, etc. And each time a particle interacts with the sensor on the back, the invention beeps, and that’s where the typical reverberate of Geiger counters come from. This background radiation has an average value of 0.2 microsieverts per hour, so we’ll have to talk about units, but first I got a few boulders to show you. This are all minerals with the same property, which is to contain … Uranium! First here is called autunite, it’s a quite beautiful mineral, crystalline, that contains Uranium in the middle of its molecule and has a color between fluorescent green and yellow.So when I say florescent you say … Yes, look at what happens when you glint it with UV light. It starts radiating with a sumptuou and intense green light, you can easily interpret all the details and quartzs, it’s crazy. But hey, it really looks like the conventional radioactive material you are presented in animations, when it glitters lettuce, you are well aware! Here I have a tobernite, which is another mineral compound that contains uranium, this one is a bit darker. And here I have autunite again, but agglomerated as tiny crystals on a granite mineral.So Uranium equals radioactivity … And even though Uranium by itself isn’t very radioactive … Let’s measure. Getting closer … Ha ha! 301 microsieverts per hour, wow! And for this one … 150 again, let’s go! And the small tobernite? 150 too, is everything all right! Of track it’s a bit scary to hear the counter seek wildernes, at 1,500 terms the background evaluate, but it’s not necessarily hazardous to hold them in hands, I want … HOLY SH ** WHAT IS THIS CRAP! By the action it’s very important to know that radioactivity declines by following an inverse-square law, so every time you doubled the distance you stand from something radioactive, the severity of radiation divides by 4, so if you triple the distance it’s divided among 9, etc. So even if they are I have a super high value on contact, if I just make the sensor away, it ceases … it sags very fast, until about 50 cm( 2ft) where there’s almost nothing. Oh an too, narratives about contamination as soon as something handles anything radioactive, well, this little box has been in contact with the rock-and-roll for daytimes … And there’s nothing at all, rays only go through of course.Therefore, are these radiation hazardous, and just how much? There are tons of parts, however principally use those: the Gray, 1 Gray equals 1 joule of energy brought to 1kg of question, then the Becquerel, which defines the amount of deteriorations per second, and finally Sievert, or microsievert, that makes mas impact into account. You have to know that the impact of radiation on the human body depends on the particle you consider, and the organ uncovered. Alpha particles have 20 times more effect than beta or gamma, but because they’re blocked by the surface of the skin, you’d need to eat or breathe a radioactive substance that emits alpha for it to be harmful. Also, every part of the body doesn’t react the same when exposed to radiation, the most sensitive are lungs, bone marrow, and the …* clasping grasping* And a dosage received at once or spread in time won’t have the same effects, so it’s a bit hard to define thresholds of danger.But basically, you have high chances of death if you receive a dose of 2Sv at once , no observable impacts on blood below 100 mSv, and generally, you shouldn’t be exposed to something that radiates more than 1mSv per hour. Naturally, we all receive between 2500 and 3500 microsieverts of radioactivity per year, that’s equivalent to 2.5 to 3.5 millisieverts. For analogy, an weapon x-ray gives a quantity of about 1Sv, just about as much as eating 10 bananas. A Paris – NY flight is similar to 40 Sv, and a thorax CT scan can climb up to 5,000 or 12,000 Sv. So that’s about 3 to 4 years of natural radiation. It’s not dangerous, but don’t do that several times a year, huh. A nuclear worker in France can receive up to 500 mSv of radiation per year on his hands, and 20 mSv on his mas( 50 mSv in the USA ). But that’s a dosage an astronaut receives in about 4 weeks in the international space station, who received about 130 to 160 mSv during a 6 month goal. So if you get the calculation right … that’s about 50 to 80 years of radioactivity. In 6 months. Still, cosmonauts are just tine. Who else is also more exposed than the average? Smokers! Yes, because there’s polonium 210 and induce 210 in cigarettes, and they’re both radioactive isotopes that will gently get in the lungs and eject from within on the part that’s 12 times more sensitive than bark for example. Aight, imma head out, bye! Anyway, even though radiation can mar tissues and DNA and compel cancers, it’s all a matter of quantity and exposure.So no, regarding radioactive rock-and-rolls from time to time in my hands doesn’t mean something will happen to me. Now that your intelligences are softening with all this theory, let’s go back to a bit of tradition. No, I haven’t improved a nuclear bomb. Not more. But we’ve built 2 machines that allow to see the path of molecules coming from radioactivity. First up we have here a massive vapour chamber. Basically, this machine labours by first creating a cold surface. So here we have a copper sheet, under which are a lot of Peltier modules, than can create heat on one side, and cold on the other. Necessarily we need to evacuate the ability, so that’s why we have a lot of water-cooling and supporters down there. On surface of this aquarium I will residence a piece of foam immersed in isopropanol.And slowly the vapors will fall and accumulate on the coldnes layer until they reach a state of supersaturation. We too have high-pitched voltage related between those wire and the sheet, which allows for a better visualization of…the effect. This machine made us about 2 weeks to build, it’s really tough and I could even make an entire video about it. Still, it use partly, I want it gets cold but not cold enough more. So for this we had to take out the machine outside where it’s cold, and finally we got some results.So the machine is outside, right now it’s about 3C, inside the chamber it’s about -3 2C, and I situated the autunite rock-and-roll as “youre seeing”, so let’s help it now with a little of high voltage. Look what happens when I throw the switching … Wow, check it out! It’s beautiful! All these ways you can see in the chamber are only perceptible because of radioactivity. The Uranium atoms contained in the autunite decay by emit an alpha particle that ionizes the breeze and alcohol vapors on its nature and this allows the supersaturated alcohol vapors to abbreviate and sort tiny droplets that come. When you accompany short and thick tracks, these are from alpha particles, because retain they were go for a few centimeters in aura. When you appreciate thinner tracks that whirl around, these are electrons so beta minus particles.And by placing a needle from a radium clock, you can also see its alpha radiation. If you let the chamber run without any radioactive information inside, you can see all the natural background radiation in the shadow. And if you’re lucky you can even investigate an atom of Radon decaying, and giving an alpha particle very. It’s gorgeous but there’s even more simple. This little machine called a spark chamber. This one took simply 2 hours to build with components you can find on Banggood it’s very easy and manipulates all the time. Inside is a high voltage component that will generate over 30 kV, and I’m applying this voltage across the cables and this aluminum plate right there. And as you can see … both are separated by just a few millimeters. The point is for the spark not to constitute naturally because there are no spikes between the poles.So when I turn the machine on, there’s no arcing as you can see. And when I producing the rock close to the cables … Now you can see that every time an alpha particle is emanated and crossings the cavity between the wires and the expanse, it ionizes are on its way and starts a track on which the electrical current can flow much more easily.As a more industrious generator of alpha particles, I have this vessel from an aged smoke detector that contains Americium. Look what happens when I deliver it close. The radioactivity is a lot more intense, and you can really see that the triggers only from right under the capsule. And when I lift up the radioactive root gradually, you can se that above a certain height , no particles reach the machine because they can only go through a few centimeters of breath. You can also demo the facts of the case that alpha particles are stopped by a sheet of paper.Well, beings ever think it’s creepy but I study radioactivity is pretty cool! This deserves a Like, right? SUBSCRIBE to the channel if you like experimentations, and write your ideas in the comments. I could even make a video about these machines, or seminars to build them because they’re so interesting to watch. Big thanks again to NordVPN for sponsoring this video. Alright I’m out, I have some uranium to stow. Happy Science to all, bye !.

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